Bosnia and Herzegovina Travel Guide
Bosnia and Herzegovina, is a state located in the western Balkans, bordered by Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast and Croatia to the north and west. Its capital is Sarajevo. Until April 1992 it was part of Yugoslavia. The name Bosnia derives from the name of the Bosna river; while the name of Herzegovina derives from the title of “herceg”, and the name of the region literally means “the land of herzeg” (Hercegova zemlja, Hercegovina; name of the region that is found for the first time in the historical documents of 1448). Since 1995 it has been a Federal Parliamentary Republic.
The rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are eight: Una, Sana, Sava (which is the longest), Vrbas, Bosna, Drina, Lim, Piva and Neretva to the north.
The most important lake is the Perucac, of artificial origin, along the Drina river, south-east of the country, shared for one sixth of its extension with Serbia.
As in much of Central-Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, the climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is typically continental, with generally harsh and snowy winters and summers with moderate daily temperature excursions, in which there are hot and muggy periods. Heavy rainfall is particularly frequent, as in all the Balkans.
The resident population in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 3,517 million inhabitants (in 2016), and lives in urban areas for 43%. Life expectancy is 68.5 years, but the country holds a negative European record. In fact, Gini’s coefficient is the highest in Europe (0.56), although the list of states for income equality indicates a value of 0.262 for the year 2001. The unemployment rate stands at 34%. Infant mortality is 13 per thousand, while the literacy rate is 97.9%.
The population in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2013, reduced due to the conflict, is made up of inhabitants of different ethnicities and religions: Bosniaks (Muslims, 50.11%), Serbs (Orthodox 36.78%) and Croats (Catholics, 14, 43%).
The official languages are Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian. On paper, the differences between the three languages are minimal; in general Bosnian and Croatian are used in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the Latin alphabet, while Serbian and Bosnian are used in the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Ezzegovina, with the Cyrillic alphabet.